From Annie Hall's


- A -

ACID MEDIUM: An organic material that has a pH of less than 6.5.

ACID SOIL: Soil with a pH of 6.5 or less. (see SOIL pH)

AERATION: Loosening the soil by digging or puncturing it to allow air flow and water penetration.

AIR LAYERING: A method of propagating single-stem plants. A cut is made in the stem and wrapped with damp sphagnum moss. After roots develop the stem is cut below the new roots and replanted.

ALKALINE SOIL: Soil with a a pH level of 7.0 or more. (see SOIL pH)

ALPINE: A plant from a high altitude, usually grown above the tree line in snow covered winters.

ALTERNATE: Leaf form, where the leaves are arranged singly at different heights on the stem.

ANNUAL: A plant that grows from seed, blooms, produces seeds and dies in less than one year.

ANTHER: The part of the flower that produces pollen. It is the upper section of the stamen.

ANTHRACNOSE: A fungi that infects leaves and tender young shoots. The fungi can also attack mature leaves and cause damage to twigs and branches

APHID: A soft bodied insect the size of a pinhead. Usually feeding off new growth or flower buds. Easily controlled with a strong blast of water on a regular basis.

APICAL: The growth at the tip of a branch. This is where the plant sends most of it's growth energy.

AQUATIC: Plant which grows partially or completely in water.

ASEXUAL: Propagating a plant by cuttings or divisions.

AWL-SHAPED: A narrow leaf which tapers to a stiff point.

AXIL: The angle between part of a plant and the stem that carries it. A growth or flower bud ("axillary bud") often appears in the axil.

- B -

BACKFILL: Soil that is returned to a planting hole after planting. Backfill should be amended with rich organic material to improve the texture.

BARE-ROOT: A plant with the soil removed from it's root ball. Usually wrapped in burlap or plastic.

BARK: The outer layers of a woody stem.

BEARDED: A petal bearing a tuft or zone of long hairs.

BED: An area used for flowers and shrubs. Usually along a path or lawn.

BEDDING PLANT: Plants set into a flower bed for a temporary display of color. Usually annuals.

BENEFICIAL INSECT: Insects that are beneficial to your garden because they destroy garden pests. For example the adults and larvae of the Ladybug feed on aphids, mealybugs, spider mites and other soft bodied insects.

BICOLOR: Part of a plant with two distinctly different colors.

BIENNIAL: A plant which produces it's foliage during it's first year, blooms it's second year then dies.

BIGENERIC: The offspring produced by crossing two different genera.

BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL: Using living organisms such as beneficial insects or parasites to control garden pests.

BLEEDING: Weeping or loss of plant fluids.

BLOOM: 1. A flower or blossom. 2. A natural mealy or waxy coating covering the leaves of plants.

BOLT: Plants that produce flowers and seed prematurely.

BONSAI: Dwarfing plants by careful root and stem pruning and root restriction.

BOTANICAL NAME: The Latin scientific name of a plant. Plants also have common names.

BOTTOM HEAT: Providing heat under a container of soil by electric cables or hot water pipes.

BRACT: A modified leaf, often highly colored and sometimes mistaken for a flower.

BREAK: Production of a side shoot after removal of the growing point.

BROADCAST: To scatter seeds or fertilizers by hand over the soil surface.

BROAD-LEAFED: A plant with wide flat leaves.

BUD: An immature shoot enclosing a branch, leaf or flower.

BUD UNION: Where the top growth of a plant joins the root stock.

BULB: A modified bud, usually formed below ground level. A true bulb consists of fleshy scales surrounding the central bud, but the term is often loosely applied to corms, rhizomes and tubers.

BULBLET: An immature small bulb formed at the base of a mature bulb; e.g Hyacinth.

- C -

CACTUS: A plant with succulent stems and leaves.

CALCITIC LIMESTONE: A common material used for changing a soil pH form an acidic level to a more neutral level. This type is most commonly used and contains calcium carbonate.

CAMBIUM: The growth tissue of woody plants.

CAPILLARY ACTION: The natural upward movement of water in confined areas.

CARNIVOROUS: A plant (typically living in highly acidic soil that doesn't adequately provide enough nourishment) which has adapted to trap and consume insects for food. An example is the Venus Flytrap plant.

CHELATE: A chelate is an organic substance that holds micronutrients in a form available for absorption by plants. Iron chelate is often used to cure chlorosis.

CHILLING REQUIREMENT: Some plants need a certain about of cold weather to grow and bloom well the following year.

CHLOROSIS: An abnormal yellowing or blanching of the leaves due to lack of chlorophyll. This usually occurs because of a lack of Iron or other nutrients.

COMPLETE FERTILIZER: A plant food that contains Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium.

COMPOST: A rich material formed by the decay of organic matter.

COMPOST HEAP / COMPOSTING: A pile or container of decomposing organic materials.

COMPOUND FLOWER: A flower made up of many florets, e.g Chrysanthemum.

COMPOUND LEAF: A leaf made up or two or more leaflets attached to the leaf stalk.

CONIFER: A group of plants (Such as pine and cedar) that have narrow needlelike leaves and bear seeds in cones.

CONSERVATORY: A structure made partly or entirely of glass and attached to the house where plants are grown and enjoyed.

CONTAINER GARDENING: Growing plants in containers instead of in the ground.

COOL SEASON PLANTS: Plants that thrive, grow or bloom in the cool season.

CORM: A swollen, underground stem base used for propagation.

COVER CROP: A crop grown to protect and enrich the soil and/or to control weeds.

CROWN: The region where stem and root join, usually at or very near ground level.

CULTIVAR: A contraction of "Cultivated Variety" Indicates a variety originated in cultivation and not the wild.

CULTIVATE: The process of breaking up the surface of the soil. This aerates the soil, removes weeds and encourages water penetration.

CUTTING: A piece of a plant (leaf, stem or root) which can be rooted to produce a new plant.

- D -

DAMPING OFF: Decay of young seedlings at ground level following fungal attack. Often the result of soil borne diseases and over watering.

DEAD-HEADING: The removal of faded heads of flowers.

DECAY CYCLE: The changes that occur as plants grow, die, and break down in the soil.

DECIDUOUS: These are plants that loose their leaves at the end of the growing season. Maple trees are a good example.

DEFOLIATION: The unnatural loss of a plant's leaves. May be caused by drought, disease, insect infestation, heat, late frost, or lack of nutrients.

DETHATCH: Removing dead stems that build up under lawns or ground covers.

DIOCECIOUS: A plant which bears either male or female flowers. (Compare to Monoecious)

DISC (DISK): The flat central part of a compound flower. It is made up of short, tubular florets.

DISEASE: Organisms that attack a plant causing damage. Diseases can result from bacteria, fungi or viruses.

DISTILLED WATER: Pure water free from dissolved salts. Formerly made by distillation, now produced chemically by demineralization.

DIVISION: A method of propagating plants by separating each one into two or more sections and then repotting.

DOLOMITIC LIMESTONE: Sometimes used when 'liming' soil that has an acid pH level that is too high. As it contains calcium and magnesium carbonate it should be used only with soils that are also deficient in magnesium as well. (See also Calcitic Limestone)

DORMANT PERIOD (DORMANCY): The time when a plant has naturally stopped growing and the leaves have fallen or the top growth has died down. The dormant period is usually, but not always, in winter. Compare resting period.

DOUBLE DIGGING: A technique in soil preparation where the top layer of soil is removed in order to amend and break up the lower layer. The top layer is then replaced

DOUBLE FLOWER: The Latin name for this is "flore pleno." It refers to flowers that have many petals present, such as roses.

DOUBLE POTTING: An American term for placing a potted plant in a larger pot with damp peat moss surrounding it. The peat is kept moist and provides a humid evaporative effect for the potted plant nestled between it.

DRAWN: Excessively tall and weak growth, caused by plants being grown in too little light or too closely together.

DRAINAGE: The movement of water through the soil.

DRIPLINE: The area directly under the outermost branches of a tree. The zone within this circle is where most of the plants feeder roots are.

DROUGHT: A period of time when an area gets less than normal rainfall.

DROUGHT RESISTANT: A plant that can withstand periods of time with out much water. It may not flower and its' appearance may be altered, but it will survive.

DROUGHT TOLERANT: A plant that withstands periods of time without water and will still flower and have a normal appearance.

DUSTING: A technique of broadcasting powdered fungicide or insecticide.

- E -

ENTIRE LEAF: An undivided and un-serrated leaf.

EPIPHYTE: A plant which grows above ground attaching itself to trees or rocks. The Amazon Air Plant seen in many nurseries is a good example.

EROSION CONTROL: Using plants or materials such as fabric, plastic or straw to prevent soil from washing away.

ESPALIER: A plant that is trained so that its branches grow in a flat pattern.

ESTABLISHED: A plant that is well rooted and produced good growth.

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION: Abbreviated as ET, it is the amount of water that transpires through a plants leaves combined with the amount that evaporates from the soil in which it is growing. Used as a guide for how much water a plant needs per day/week/year.

EVERGREEN: A plant which retains its leaves in a living state during the winter.

EVERLASTING: Flowers with papery petals which retain some or all of their color when dried for winter decorations.

EXOTIC: Strictly speaking, a plant which is not native to the area, but popularly any unusual or striking plant.

EYE: Two unrelated meanings: an undeveloped growth bud or the center of a flower.

- F -

F1 HYBRID: A first generation offspring of two purebred strains. An Fl hybrid is generally more vigorous than an ordinary hybrid.

FAMILY: One genus or several genera which have a basically similar floral pattern make up a family.

FEMALE PLANT: A plant that produces fruit, but does not produce pollen.

FERTILIZE(RS): The act of or the actual substance added to soil to provide additional nutrients for plants. May also be used to describe the pollination process flowers undergo with the help of bees and other insects.

FIBROUS-ROOTED: A root system which contains many thin roots rather than a single tap root.

FLAT: A shallow box or tray used to start cuttings or seedlings.

FLORET: A small flower which is part of a much larger compound flower head; e.g Cineraria.

FLOWER SPIKE: A flower head made up of a central stem with the flowers growing directly on it.

FOILIAR FERTILIZER: A fertilizer applied in liquid form to a plant's foliage in a fine spray so that the plant can absorb the nutrients through its leaves.

FORCING: The process of making a plant grow or flower before its natural season.

FORMAL: A style of gardening where plants are trimmed neatly, and rigid geometric shapes are dominant.

FROND: A leaf of a fern or palm.

FROST: A condition that occurs when low temperatures and humidity combine causing freezing.

FUNGICIDE: A chemical used to control diseases caused by fungi.

FUNGUS: A primitive form of plant life which is known to the house plant grower as the most common cause of infectious disease: powdery mildew. sooty mould and area mould.

- G -

GENUS: Used when naming plants. Genus is the plant equivalent of our surnames. When followed by the name of the 'Species' you have it's botanical name. Almost always in Latin.

GERMINATION: The first stage in the development of a plant from seed.

GIRDLING: The choking of a branch by a wire, rope or other inflexible material which usually occurs most often in woody stemmed plants that have been tied down too tightly without regard for growth.

GLABROUS: Plant surface which is smooth and hairless.

GLAUCOUS: Plant surface which is covered with a bluish-gray bloom.

GLOCHID: A small hooked hair borne on some cacti.

GRAFTING: The process of joining a stem or bud of one plant on to the stem of another.

GREEN HOUSE: A structure built of glass or plastic used to maintain optimum moisture and temperatures for plant growth.

GREEN MANURE: A crop (such as rye grass) that is grown and then incorporated into the soil to increase soil fertility or organic matter content. Usually turned over into the soil a few weeks before new planting begins.

GROUND COVER: A plant used to provide a low-growing carpet.

GROWING POINT: The tip of a stem, which is responsible for extension growth.

GROWING SEASON: The average number of days in a region between the last killing frost in late winter and the first killing frost in late fall.

GYPSUM: An inorganic substance that improves clay soils by leaching the salts that bind clay particles together.

- H -

HALF HARDY: An indoor plant which requires a minimum temperature of 50"-55"F for healthy growth. Compare hardy and tender.

HARDENING OFF: Gradual acclimatization to colder conditions. Usually used when talking about transplanting of greenhouse plants or seedlings. Can be as simple as moving outside into a protected area for a short time, to more involved methods.

HARD PAN: A naturally formed layer of hard soil that roots can not penetrate and water cannot drain through.

HARDY: A plant which can withstand prolonged exposure to temperatures at or below 45"F. Compare half hardy and tender.

HEADING BACK: Cutting back the growth of a plant in order to keep the plant more compact.

HEAVY SOIL: A term referring to dense clay or adobe soil.

HEEL: A strip of bark and wood remaining at the base of a side shoot cutting pulled off a main shoot. Some cuttings root more readily if a heel is attached.

HERB: A plant grown for flavoring or medicinal purposes.

HERBACEOUS: A plant with a non-woody stem.

HERBICIDE: A chemical used to destroy plants.

HONEYDEW: Sticky, sugary secretion deposited on plants by insects such as aphid and whitefly.

HORTICULTURAL OIL: A refined oil that is sprayed on plants to kill insects.

HOUSE PLANTS: Plants that are grown and raised indoors in containers.

HUMIDIFIER: A piece of equipment used to raise the humidity of the air in a room.

HUMUS: A dark colored, stable form of organic matter that remains after most of plant or animal residues have decomposed.

HYBRID: A plant with parents which are genetically distinct. The parent plants may be different cultivars, varieties, species or genera but not different families.

HYDROPONICS: A method of growing a plant in water containing dissolved nutrients.

HYGROMETER: An instrument used to measure the Relative Humidity of the air.

- I -

INFLORESCENCE: The arrangement of flowers on the stem. A flower head.

INOCULANT: A seed treatment medium that contains the sybiotic rhizobial bacteria to capture nitrogen when in contact with legume roots.

INORGANIC: A chemical or fertilizer which is not obtained from a source which is or has been alive.

INSECTICIDE: A chemical (synthetic or organic) used to kill or repel insects.

INTERNODE: The part of the stem between one node and another.

- J -

JOINT: Where the leaf and stem meet.

- K -

KNOCKING OUT: The temporary removal of a plant from its pot in order to check the condition of the root ball.

KEEL: A boat-shaped structure formed by the two lower petals of many members of the Leguminosae.

- L -

LATEX: Milky sap which exudes from cut surfaces of a few house plants, such as Ficus elastica decora and Euphorbia.

LEACHING: A similar concept to making tea which leaches out the flavor of the tea leaves. This concept regards how water will rinse bad substances (like salt) or good ones (like nutrients) down deep into the soil or as runoff.

LEAF MOULD: Partially decayed leaves used in some potting mixtures. It must be sieved and sterilized before use.

LEACHING: Deep watering that removes excess salts form the soil.

LEAF BURN: Damage caused to a leaf by under watering, chemicals or salts, or strong winds.

LEAFLET: A leaf-like section of a compound leaf.

LEAF MOLD: Partially decomposed leaves that are used as an organic soil amendment.

LEGGY: Abnormally tall and spindly growth .

LEGUME: A plant whose roots form an association with soil-borne bacteria that can capture atmospheric nitrogen. A good example of this are soybeans.

LOAM: Good quality soil used in preparing compost. Adequate supplies of clay, sand and fiber must be present.

LONG DAY PLANT: A plant which requires light for a longer period than it would normally receive from daylight in order to induce flowering; e.g Saintpaulia.

- M -

MALE PLANT: A plant that produces pollen, but no fruit or seeds.

MANURE: An organic material excreted by animals (usually from steer is sold commonly) this is used as a fertilizer and an amendment to enrich the soil.

MEALY BUGS: White insects with soft overlapping plates and a fuzzy covering.

MICROCLIMATE: The warmth and humidity of the air in close proximity to a plant. It may differ significantly from the general climate of the room.

MICROCUTTING: A plant produced by micropropagation: a modern technique using tiny pieces of the parent plant on a sterile nutrient jelly.

MICROORGANISMS: Animals and plants that are too small to be seen clearly with the naked eye.

MIST PROPAGATION: The ideal method of propagation under glass, using automatic mist generators and soil heaters.

MITES: Tiny relatives of spiders that suck fluids form leaves.

MONOECIOUS: A plant which bears both male and female flowers. (Compare to Dioecious)

MOUTH: The open end of a bell shaped or tubular flower.

MULCH: Any loose, usually organic material placed over the soil as a protective covering or for decorative purposes. Organic mulch provides nutrients to the soil, keeps roots cool, moisture in, provides nutrients and smothers weeds.

MULTICOLOUR: A flower with petals which bear at least three distinctly different colors.

MUTATION: A sudden change in the genetic make-up of a plant, leading to a new feature. This new feature can be inherited.

- N -


NEUTRAL: Neither acid nor alkaline; pH of about 6.5.

NITROGEN CYCLE: The transformation of nitrogen from an atmospheric gas to organic compounds in the soil, then to compounds in plants and eventually the release of nitrogen gas back into the atmosphere.

NITROGEN FIXATION: The capture and conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds, stored in the soil, that can be used by plants.

NODE: The point on a stem where a leaf or bud is attached.

NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY: Soils that are lacking in nutrients. This usually affects the health of the plant.

NUTRIENTS: Elements necessary to carry out life processes. The 6 most important are Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron, Zinc, and Manganese.

- O -

OFFSET: A young plantlet which appears on a mature plant. An offset can generally be detached and used for propagation.

OPPOSITE: Leaf form, where the leaves are arranged in opposite pairs along the stem. Compare alternate.

ORGANIC: A material which is obtained from a source which is or has been alive. Also the general term used for a type of gardening using no chemical or synthetic fertilizers or pesticides.

OSMUNDA FIBER: The roots of the fern Osmunda regalis, used for making Orchid Compost.

OVER-POTTING: Repotting a plant into a pot which is too large to allow successful establishment.

- P -

PEAT: Partially decomposed sphagnum moss used in making composts. Valuable for its low pH rating.

PEBBLE TRAY: Grouping potted plants within a shallow, pebble filled tray in order to maintain humidity in an environment with central heating. Water is poured into the pebbles and evaporates up and around the plants.

PEDICEL: The stalk of an individual flower.

PEDUNCLE: The stalk of an flower head. (see also Inflorescence)

PENDANT: Hanging.

PERENNIAL: A plant which will live for three years or more under normal conditions.

PERLITE: A mineral expanded by heating to form very lightweight, porous white granules useful in container soil mixes to enhance moisture and air retention.

PEST MANAGEMENT: The presents of pests does not necessarily mean trouble. Managing pests carefully you can have a natural balance in your garden of good and bad insects. Carefully eliminating large infestations of pests.

pH: A measure of acidity and alkalinity. Below pH 6.5 is acid, above pH 7.5 is alkaline.

PINCHING OUT: The removal of the growing point of a stem to induce bushiness or to encourage flowering. Also known as stopping.

PINNATE LEAF: A series of leaflets arranged on either side of a central stalk.

PISTIL: The female reproductive parts of the flower.

PLUG: A small but well-rooted seedling raised in a cellular tray and sold for growing on.

POLLINATION: The transfer of pollen from pistol to stamen, which is necessary for seed formation.

POLLEN: The yellow dust produced by the antes. It is the male element which fertilized the ovule.

POT-BOUND: A plant growing in a pot which is too small to allow proper leaf and stem growth.

POWDERY MILDEW: A white mildew that infects a plant especially on the new growth.

PROPAGATION: In gardening usage, this refers to the many different ways of starting new plants.

PRUNING: A method of cutting off leaves or branches within limits in order to remove dead or diseased foliage or branches. Also used to control or direct growth, increase quality or yield of flowers or fruit and to ensure growth position of main branches to enhance structural strength. (See Bonsai for ornamental reasons as well.)

- Q -

- R -

RESTING PERIOD: The time when a plant has naturally stopped growing but when there is little or no leaf fall. Compare dormant period.

RHIZOME: A thickened stem which grows horizontally below or on the soil surface.

ROCK GARDEN: A garden, usually grown on a slope, with ornamental rocks and plants.

ROOT BALL: Matted roots plus enclosed soil within a the pot of a container grown plant.

ROOT BOUND: A plant that has been in a container too long and has roots that grow in a circular pattern at the bottom of the container.

ROOT STOCK: The root system of a grafted plant.

ROOTING HORMONE: A chemical in powder or liquid form which promotes the formation of roots at the base of a cutting.

ROSETTE: Term applied to a whorl of leaves arising at the base of a plant.

ROW COVERS: Several types of semitransparent materials used to cover plants, trapping heat, enhancing growth, and provide protection from frost or winds.

RUGOSE: Rough and wrinkled.

RUST: An orange colored fungus. Different kinds of rust attack different kinds of plants. A rust that attacks roses, for example will not attack your hollyhocks.

RUNNER: A creeping stem which produces small plantlets along its length. Sometimes called a 'Stolen.'

- S -

SCALE: Closely related to aphids and mealybugs that attaches themselves to the stems and leaves of plants, covering themselves with a waxy layer.

SHEET COMPOSTING: A method of spreading undecomposed organic materials over the soil's surface, then working them into the soil to decompose, rather than piling them and spreading the resulting compost. (see also Green Manure)

SHORT DAY PLANT: A plant which requires light for a shorter period than it would normally receive from daylight in order to induce flowering; e.g Chrysanthemum and Poinsettia.

SHRUB: A woody plant with a framework of branches and little or no central stem. Compare tree.

SINGLE FLOWER: A flower with a normal amount of petals present, arranged in a single row. Daisies are a good example of this type.

SLUGS AND SNAILS: Many gardeners constantly wage war on these slimy garden pests. A slug is simply a type of snail without a shell. The attack plants feeding mostly at night. Use bait, trap, hand pick or introduce decolate snails that feed off of snails, snail eggs and slug eggs.

SOIL AMENDMENTS: Additives to the soil that provide the capability to retain moisture, improve drainage, provide nutrients and improve the soil texture.

SPECIES: Used when naming plants. Designates a specific species of the 'Genus' and is best described as the plant worlds equivalent to our Christian names (or first names). Will follow the Genus name and is usually in Latin. Note that once a plant's full name is used, i.e. Hedera helix, future listings will abbreviate the Genus name and follow it with the species name. An example would be, H. helix, as the next plant in a listing.

SPHAGNUM MOSS: Various mosses native to bogs are sphagnum. Often used for the lining of hanging baskets and for air layering. (See Air Layering)

SPORE: A reproductive cell of nonflowering plants, such as ferns.

SPORT: A plant which shows a marked and inheritable change from its parent; a mutation.

SPURGE: A weed that grows along the ground. A difficult weed to get rid of, because any part of the plant left behind in weeding will produce a new plant.

STAMEN: The male reproductive parts of a flower.

STANDARD: A plant which does not normally grow as a tree but is trained into a tree-like form.

SUCCULENT: Succulents plants have leaves and/or stems which are thick and fleshy. They often have waxy outer layers that allow the plants to retain water well.

SUCKER: A shoot which arises from an underground shoot or root of a plant.

SYSTEMIC: A pesticide which goes inside the plant and travels in the sap stream.

- T -

TAP ROOT: A strong root, sometimes swollen, which grows vertically into the soil or compost.

TENDER: An indoor plant which requires a minimum temperature of 60"F. Occasional short exposure to temperatures below this level may be tolerated. Compare hardy and half hardy.

TENDRIL: A thread-like stem or leaf which clings to any nearby support.

TERMINAL: The uppermost bud or flower on a stem.

TERRARIUM: A partly or entirely closed glass container used to house a collection of indoor plants.

THINNING OUT: Removing entire branches of a plant in order to provide a more airy look.

TOPIARY: The art of clipping and training woody plants to form geometric shapes or intricate patterns. Box and Myrtle are suitable types.

TOPDRESS: A process that means to apply on the surface of soil. Usually referring to the spreading of organic material such as ground bark or manure.

TOPSOIL: The top layer of soil naturally occurring in a native soil. The term also applies to soil sold in nurseries for garden beds.

TRANSPIRATION: The loss of water through the pores of the leaf.

TRANSPLANT: A plant that is moved from one location to an other.

TREE: A woody plant with a distinct central trunk. Compare shrub.

TUBER: A storage organ used for propagation. It may be a fleshy root (e.g Dahlia) or a swollen underground stem.

- U -

UMBEL: A part of the plant bearing flowers in which all the flower stalks are of similar length and arise from the same point.

UNDERPLANTING: Planting a low plant under a taller plant.

UNISEXUAL: A flower of one sex only (See also Monoecious and Dioecious)

- V -

VARIEGATED LEAF: A green leaf design which is blotched, edged or spotted with yellow, white or cream color.

VARIETY: One of possibly many closely-related plant species. The variety name is usually in Latin.

VERMICULITE: This is a mineral called mica that is heated and puffed up to form lightweight, sponge-like granules capable of holding both water and air.

VINE: A flexible plant with a tall or long growth. Some vines will attach themselves to objects, some need support and some hang on with tendrils.

- W -

WARM SEASON PLANT: A plant that does best in the warm seasons.

WEED: An uninvited and usually unattractive plant that surfaces in gardens. Usually seeds are delivered by winds, but not always.

WEED CONTROL: Weeds compete with garden plants for water, nutrients, light and space. regular weeding is essential to control.

WEED PREVENTION: Prevent weeds by applying a "Pre-emergent Herbicide" that prevents seeds from germinating or use groundcovers or mulch to smother new weeds.

WHITEFLIES: Small white flies that live on the underside of leaves. These pests are hard to get rid of. Spray plants regularly with strong blasts of water and introduce beneficial insects that feed on whiteflies.

- X -

XERISCAPE: A patented name that stands for water-conserving landscapes.

XEROPHYTE: A plant which is able to live under very dry conditions.

- Y -

- Z -

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